10 Science Facts to Know About Proteins

science facts about proteins

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  1. Proteins are made from polymers

Polymers of amino acids, known as the polypeptide, are what proteins are made from. The polypeptide must be folded in order for it to become a protein. Due to the fact that proteins have different functions, polypeptide must be folded in various ways to create the correct structure.

  1. Proteins have a primary structure

The primary structure refers to the order in which the amino acids are organized within the polypeptide chain. Each cell contains twenty amino acids, which means that the primary structure will differ between polypeptides. This structure is made of covalent bonds, which are very strong.

  1. Proteins have a secondary structure

The secondary structure of the protein refers to the pattern of folds that form when the polypeptide chain enters its final shape. These fold can take on two patterns. The first is the alpha helix, which resembles a long spiral and the second is a pleated sheet, which resembles a windy road.

  1. Proteins have a tertiary structure

The tertiary structure is the last shape that the polypeptide takes whilst creating a protein. This shape will dictate what tasks the protein will take on. This final shape will create either a globular protein, which is round and wavy or a fibrous protein, which is long and thick.

  1. Proteins have a quaternary structure

When a protein’s job is too complex for three structures, a fourth structure is added to support it. This allows more polypeptide chains that may have different functions to bond together and create a multi-functioning protein.

  1. Proteins are enzymes

Proteins can also be enzymes, which support the process of chemical reactions. They play the role of catalysts that increase the speed of chemical reactions, making sure that they are successful.

7.Proteins keep the cell working

Another role of the protein enzyme is to make sure that everything in the cell is functioning properly. This means that enzymes within a cell are able to communicate with each other and ensure that metabolic pathways are either on or off, depending on the chemical reaction needed.

  1. Proteins make up the plasma membrane

Proteins make sure that cells are separated from the rest of the body by making up fifty percent of the plasma membrane. The plasma membrane makes sure that the cell can function properly by letting the correct molecules in and out of the cell and defending it against viruses.

  1. Proteins shape DNA

Binding proteins may be the most important proteins within the body as they allow the correct sections of DNA to be read. They do this by fitting into certain sections of DNA through DNA-binding domains.

  1. Proteins help organ transplants

Proteins play a crucial role when doctors try to find an organ match. This is because membrane proteins make sure that cells are marked as belonging to a certain person. Doctors thus have to find membrane proteins that are similar enough to their patients, in order to stop the organ from being rejected.

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